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The Puzzle Authentication Scheme

Using ed25519 signatures for authenticating HTTP requests.

Apr. 1, 2021|Bernhard Kauer

1. Motivation

Every request to the backend needs to be authenticated by the client. Traditional password-based schemes like HTTP Basic or Digest Authentication are too weak for a payment API. Cryptographically stronger approaches like HMAC require a shared secret, that must be kept secure on both ends, while still be usable frequently. This seems to be a problem hard to solve for a distributed backend system.

We therefore employ a public-key signature scheme, where the private key never leaves the device it was generated on. With a previous registered public key, the backend can still verify, that a certain request comes from a particular user and that the request parameters were not tampered with.

We have chosen to build upon ed25519 signatures, since they are:

A good description of ed25519 can be found in RFC 8032. This document even includes example code and test vectors. It is, however, strongly advised to reuse an existing library like libsodium, as subtle bugs can easily undermine the whole security of the system.

2. Authorization Header

We define a new HTTP authorization method with the following format:


The pzl part distinguish it from other authorization methods like Basic authentication. This is followed by comma-separated list of parameters.

According to RFC735, there can be white-space around the comma, but there must be none between the key-value pairs.

2.1 Limiting the validity: time

The mandatory time parameter defines the duration the signature is valid. The value START is given as a Unix timestamp. These are seconds since 1970 in the UTC time zone. The DURATION is indicated in seconds as well. An example would be:


This means this signature is not valid before Wed May 20 18:40:00 2020 and not valid after Wed May 20 18:40:59 2020.

The duration should be carefully chosen by the client according to the use case. Sometimes ten seconds might be fine to do a single API call. Days or even weeks might be needed, if the signature gives the right to download a file, for instance.

Individual signatures cannot be invalidated, even if a security incident occurred. Instead, all existing signatures must be revoked in this case by installing a new public key.

2.2 Supporting multiple devices: key

The backend supports multiple public keys per user to enable multi-device access to the same user account. The optional key parameter selects one of these keys. An example would be:


If this parameter is not given, the default key is used instead. This would currently be the key named x1, which is created together with the user account.

2.3 Including other headers: add

The client chooses additional header fields that are covered in the signature by including them in the optional add parameter. Header fields that are mentioned but not found in the request are assumed to be empty strings.

Names are separated by a plus sign. This avoids quoting the values. The colon in the HTTP/2 request pseudo header fields will be replaced by a dash.

If the parameter is not given, the following value is assumed:


This means, that only the request method and request path are normally included in a signature. This is enough for all read-only requests. Omitting the add parameter is also a secure choice for all requests that require a JSON body, as the content type is explicitly verified by the backend.

Neither the method nor the path of a request have to be included in the signature. This enables wild-card signatures that cover a whole service or all methods on a certain resource.

2.4 The resulting signature: sig

The mandatory sig parameter defines the message signature encoded as base64 in the URL-safe version. This includes the 62 alphanumeric characters plus underscore and dash. The padding with equal signs is optional. The whole parameter is therefore between 90 and 92 characters long.

A valid example would be:


The sig header must not be the first parameter in the authorization, to simplify the server-side implementation.

3. Calculating the Signature

The signature is calculated using the authorization header, additional request headers and the body of the message. All of these parts are joined together with newlines. There is no extra newline at the end of the body.

A minimal message to sign consists of the following 29 characters:

pzl time=1590000000+10\nGET\n/\n

Since there is no body, the empty string is assumed and the message to sign therefore ends with a newline. The resulting authorization header might look like this:

Authorization: pzl time=1590000000+10, sig=e9FThuTIVBILqKBQeVCrsKcUJ-ADi1SNkju3zf3Sh7-cMzoNTIPtAt_hPyln4myNlRvFePGxNyntJqZjAXm_CA

3.1 Including a body

If the HTTP request has a body, it must be added to the end of the message.

pzl time=1590000000+10\nPOST\n/endpoint\nHello World

The authorization header will be the same as above, except for a different signature.

3.2 Protecting header fields

If one wants to upload a file, the content-type should be included in the signature. Assume the following request:

POST /endpoint
Content-Type: text/plain
Content-Length: 11

    Hello World

If the non-default key x5 is used as well, the message to sign will look like this:

pzl time=1590000000+10, key=x5, add=-method+-path+content-type\nPOST\n/endpoint\ntext/plain\nHello World

The additional header names are not included in the message. They are already part of the add parameter. A corresponding Authorization header would be:

Authorization: pzl time=1590000000+10, key=x5, add=-method+-path+content-type,

Neither the key nor the add parameter are usually required.

3.3 Security considerations

The authorization header is always included in the signature. This ensures that the header names can be safely omitted and that changes of this specification will not lead to security risks for older implementations.

Including the body in the signature is mandatory. To avoid various corner cases, it is added after all the headers. In requests like GET, that do not need a body, an empty entry is still added.

There might be an extension to this specification in the future, that introduces an omit-body parameter to relax this requirement.

4. Example code

Implementing the code that generates digital signatures can be a hard task, as the smallest bug leads to a signature invalid response without any further indication where the bug might be. In this section we therefore show a step-by-step calculation that should make this programming task easier.

The following example utilizes the PyNaCl library in version 1.3.0 on top of Python v3.7.

4.1 Generating the keys

from nacl.signing import SigningKey
from nacl.encoding import URLSafeBase64Encoder

# change this to 1 to generate a novel key
if 0:
       privkey = SigningKey.generate()
       # use an example key for reproducable results
       privkey = SigningKey("0XExclimMcQUTuPb93HU5vCxi-WFYfJ0R0-74_kz6ds=", encoder=URLSafeBase64Encoder)

print("priv:", privkey.encode(URLSafeBase64Encoder).decode())
print("pub:", privkey.verify_key.encode(URLSafeBase64Encoder).decode())

4.2 Defining the message

# message
method = "GET"
path = "/"
body = "{}"
headers = {"content-type": "application/json"}

# the authentication parameters
start = 1590000000
duration = 10
add = "-method+-path+content-type"
key = "x2"

# combine into a preliminary authorization header
authorization = f"pzl time={start}+{duration}, key={key}, add={add}"

4.3 Calculating the signature

# add all items together
items = (authorization, method, path, headers.get("content-type"), body)

# convert the list into multi-line bytes
message = "\n".join(items).encode()

# Calculate the signature
signature = privkey.sign(message, encoder=URLSafeBase64Encoder).signature.decode()

# Add the signature to the authorization header.
authorization += ", sig=" + signature
print("Authorization:", authorization)

4.4 Full output

The example code generates the following output:

priv: 0XExclimMcQUTuPb93HU5vCxi-WFYfJ0R0-74_kz6ds=
pub: ugx7f8f2JIqXjlxyhZcPk_Tgkc1reR_YBrKijRzAaHg=
pzl time=1590000000+10, key=x2, add=-method+-path+content-type
b'pzl time=1590000000+10, key=x2, add=-method+-path+content-type\nGET\n/\napplication/json\n{}'
Authorization: pzl time=1590000000+10, key=x2, add=-method+-path+content-type, \

5. Python example code

We use the following function to calculate our signatures. The example utilizes the PyNaCl library in version 1.3.0 on top of Python v3.7, as well.

import time
from nacl.encoding import URLSafeBase64Encoder

def calc(signkey, method, path, keyname, body=b'', *, other_headers={}, header_to_sign=[], timestamp=0, duration=60):
    authorization = b'pzl time=%d+%d'%(timestamp or time.time(), duration)
    if keyname:
        authorization += b',key=' + keyname
    if header_to_sign:
        authorization += b',add=%s'%(b'+'.join(header_to_sign))
    header_to_sign = header_to_sign or (b'-method', b'-path')
    message = [authorization]
    for header in header_to_sign:
        if header == b'-method':
        elif header == b'-path':
            message.append(other_headers.get(header, b''))
    signature = signkey.sign(b'\n'.join(message), encoder=URLSafeBase64Encoder).signature
    res = other_headers.copy()
    res[b'authorization'] = authorization + b',sig=' + signature.rstrip(b'=')
    return res

6. Related work

6.1 HTTP signatures

The most similar approach we have found in our research are HTTP signatures. These are documented in an internet draft. Originally published in 2013, this document is still work in progress, even after the 12th iteration.

There are many syntactical differences to our approach:

We have made a few things compulsory:

On the other hand, the key name is optional, as we can often easily derive it from the request path.

6.2 AWS signature

AWS defines its own authentication scheme. They construct the authorization header from the key URL, a list of headers, and the signature.

Compared to us, they: